Departure From Home
A Muslim must be mindful of his/her duties towards family and fellow human beings. A Muslim who intends to perform Hajj must make sure, before departing for Hajj that his family is provided for during the period he is away for the Hajj. He should pay up his debt and seek forgiveness from fellow human being whom he might have caused harm in the past. He should be diligent in observing Salat (five daily prayers) and Sawm (fasting) in the month of Ramadhan as well as carrying out other religious obligations. He must shun all arrogance and exhibit a character of modesty and humbleness. He must not use unlawfully acquired money or unlawful means to perform Hajj. He should seek sincere repentance from Allah of all his past sins. In short, one should depart for Hajj just like one would wish to depart from this world.
One should spend some money in charity as well. A woman is not allowed to perform Hajj alone and must be accompanied by an adult Muslim Mahram (father, husband, son or brother etc.)
One should say two Rakat Nafl (supererogatory) prayer before leaving home for Hajj.
Ihram at Miqat
When one reaches “Miqat” (any one of the appointed places in Mecca where pilgrims make a vow of pilgrimage) one must perform ablution or take a bath, use perfume, and put on two clean, unstitched, preferably white, pieces of cloth. This pair of clothing is called Ihram. One sheet should be wrapped around the lower part of the body and the other sheet around the upper body; the head should not be covered. Women can perform pilgrimage in the cloths they are wearing. Under normal circumstances a woman’s face should not be covered unless she comes face to face with a stranger and she has to conceal herself. During the five days of Hajj, all Muslims engaged in this worship must remain in this same simple dress. As soon as a pilgrim puts on Ihram and declares his intention to perform Hajj, he/she enters into the state of Ihram and his/her Hajj begins.
After putting on the Ihram, men and women offer two Raka’ts of Nafl (supererogatory) prayer followed by recitation of their “intention” and saying the following words:
“Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik; La Shareeka-laka Labbaik; Innalhamda wan-na’mata-laka wal-mulka Lashreeka-laka"
“Here I am, O Allah! Here I am in Thy August presence; there is no associate with Thee, here am I; surely all praise is Thine and all favors are Thine and the kingdom is Thine, there is no associate with Thee.”
These words are recited in Arabic and called “Talbiyah”. These words are an essential part of the state of Ihram and Ihram will not complete without reciting these words. After saying Talbiyah pilgrim is ready to fulfill his obligation of Hajj and is required to fulfill all the conditions laid down for Hajj. While one is in the state of Ihram it is strictly forbidden to engage in foul talk, sexual conduct, arguments, or enter into a war. Allah says in the Holy Quran: “ …so whoever determines to perform the Pilgrimage in these months, should remember that there is to be no foul talk, nor any transgression, nor any quarreling during Pilgrimage. …” (2:198)
After reaching Mecca, one should head straight to Ka’aba that is situated in bounds of Masjid-el-Haram and perform Tawaaf. It is said that when one has his/her first glance at Ka’aba, whatever prayers one makes is granted.
Istlam (Kissing the Hajr-e-Aswad)
The act of kissing the Hajr-e-Aswad (Black Stone) is called Istlam. While kissing the Hajr-e-Aswad, ones hands should be on the wall of the Ka’ba in the same position as when one performs a Sajdah (prostration) during a prayer. If it is not possible to kiss the Hajr-e-Aswad, it is permissible just touch it with a hand and if that is not possible the just point to the Hajr-e-Aswad and blow a kiss to it.
Tawaaf (Circling of ka’ba)
After performing Istlam (kissing the Hajr-e-Aswad) as described above, a pilgrim should perform Tawaaf of Ka’ba. Tawaaf is performed by going around Ka’ba seven times keeping the Ka’ba on left hand side (counter clock-wise). Istlam should be performed during each circle. It is also permitted to perform Istlam of Rukun-e-Yemeni (Pillar of Yemen). The seventh circle ends at the Hajr-e-Aswad.
Nawafal at Muqam-e-Ibrahim
After completing the Tawaaf, the pilgrim should move to the Muqam-e-Ibrahim (Place of Ibrahim. At this place one should offer two Rakats of prayer while facing Ka’ba.
Sa’ee (Running between Safa’ and Marwah)
Allah the Exalted has said the Holy Quran:
“Surely, Al-Safa and Al-Marwah are among the Signs of Allah. It is, therefore, no sin for him who is on pilgrimage to the House, or performs Umra, to go round the two. And whoso does good beyond what is obligatory, surely then, Allah is Appreciating, All-Knowing.” (2:159)
After praying two Rakats of prayer at Muqam-e-Ibrahim, the pilgrim then moves to “Safa”. At this place, he should face towards Ka’ba and recite Durood, Takbir and Talbiyah. The he should walk briskly towards Marwah and recite the same at Marwah. This counts as one circuit. Now one should move to Safa’ and repeat the prayers. One should complete seven circuits between Safa’ and Marwah. These circuits are called Sa’ee.
After performing the circuits between Safa’ and Marwah, one is free to move about and go to a resting place.
Arriving at Mina
On 8th day of Dul-Hajj the pilgrims reach at Mina early in the morning after performing Tawaaf-Qudoom. A pilgrim offers Duhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha’ prayers at Mina and camp there for the night.
Arriving at Arafat
On 9th day of Dul-Hajj, after offering Fajr prayer, a pilgrim should move to Arafat. Stay at Arafat is called Waqoof and is the most important part of Hajj. Without this, Hajj cannot be considered complete. If someone misses Waqoof, he should perform Hajj the following year. One listens to the sermon at the plane of Arafat and offers combined Zuhr and Asr prayers. One should stay at Arafat till sunset (Maghrib).
Arriving at Muzdalifah
One leaves Arafat after sunset and reaches Muzdalifah in the evening of 9th Dul-Hajj. Combined Maghrib and Isha’ prayers are offered at Muzdalifah. The pilgrims spend the night at Muzdalifah.
Departure from Muzdalifah
On the 10th day of Dul-Hajj the pilgrims offer their Fajr prayer as early in the morning as possible. After the Fajr prayer a pilgrim leaves Muzdalifah and arrive at Mina. On the way to Mina one should pick up seventy small stones. As soon as he reaches Mina, he should cast seven stones at Jumrah-tul-Aqba. This act of throwing stones is called Rami. With the throwing of the first stone the requirement to repeatedly recite Talbiyah is lifted. If the pilgrim intends to sacrifice an animal then he should do that after casting stones ad Jumrah-tul-Aqba. After offering the sacrifices a male pilgrim should have his head shaven and female pilgrims are required to cut a small part of her hair. Femle pilgrims are not permitted to have their heads shaven. After the hair cut one can remove the Ihram and may now wear regular cloths.
Return to Mecca after sacrifice and hair cut. Perform Taawaf-e-Afaza
After the removal of Ihram the pilgrim is required to return to Mecca to perform another circuit of the Ka’ba. This particular circuit is called Tawaaf-e-Afaza (additional circuit) and is an essential part of the pilgrimage. After this circuit a pilgrim is permitted to return to normal life and all those lawful things that were forbidden are now allowed again.
Return to Mina after Tawaf-e-Afaza
After this additional circuit, the pilgrim should return to Mina and stay there for three days. During the stay at Mina on 11th, 12th and 13th day of Dul-Hajj the pilgrim cast seven stones on each of the Jumrah in the following order: Jumrah-tul-Oola, Jamrah-tul-Wusta, and Juramh-tul-Aqba. It is permitted not to cast stones on the third day.
Return to Ka’ba and Farewell
On the 12th or the 13th day of Dul-Hajj, the pilgrim returns to the Ka’ba and perform a final circuit. This circuit is called Tawaf-al-Sadr or Tawaf-al-Wida (parting or farewell circuit). After this last circuit, the pilgrim should drink water from Zumzum, kiss the threshold of the door of the Ka’ba, and pray to Allah for forgiveness. He should leave the Ka’ba walking backwards, looking at it the last time, and saying farewell.
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